2015, Volume 11, Issue 1
Motor safety during trampolining
Andrzej Mroczkowski1, Bartłomiej Hes2
1Department of Sport Sciences, University of Zielona Góra, Zielona Góra, Poland
2Student Sports Club “AS” in Zielona Góra, Zielona Góra, Poland
Author for correspondence: Andrzej Mroczkowski; Department of Sport Sciences, University of Zielona Góra, Zielona Góra, Poland; email: a.mroczkowski[at]wlnz.uz.zgora.pl
Background and Study Aim: Trampolining is qualified as a form of extreme physical activity (extreme sport), however its extreme nature is mainly determined by the coordination difficulty, whereas threat to health or life is above average. This paper has two primary objectives: 1) to provide reasoning based on biomechanics related to the risk of injuries during falls on the trampoline compared to falls of a person during everyday movement (e.g. walking or running on the regular ground); 2) opinions of persons with long-term experience in trampolining regarding safety of beginners during exercises on the trampoline.
Material and Methods: The study involved 25 persons (16 males and 9 females), including 4 coaches (former competitors); 21 of them are currently practicing this sport. The average age of the persons studied is 28 years and the average training experience amounts to 13.5 years. An anonymous questionnaire developed by the authors has been used in the study.
Results: As much as 84% of athletes sustained a serious injury which excluded them from training for a longer time. These injuries most frequently involved injuries to lower extremities (92%), 44% of which were ankle sprains and 24% of them constituted knee sprains. Injuries most often resulted from improper landing on the trampoline’s fabric (53%), e.g. to the cervical spine caused by unfinished somersault or twist. Falls to the edges and frames of the trampoline occurred frequently (31%), whereas falls outside the trampoline constituted 16%. Such falls occur often during trainings (74%). As far as recommendations related to prevention of motor safety given to beginners in this discipline are concerned, respondents most frequently pointed to the correct positioning of the head (68%) and the use of a sponge pressed to the torso with the chin during exercises (68%) in order to form this habit.
Conclusions: The result of "the susceptibility test of the body injuries during the fall” (STBIDF) should become one of the criteria used to qualify a candidate to trampolining. Regardless of the STBIDF result, preliminary training should involve the course about safe falling. Biomechanical knowledge of human motor safety during a fall on the regular ground and during jumps on the trampoline may be spread as the element of intellectualization of training.
Key words: biomechanics of a fall, body injuries, extreme sport, rotational movements, safe fall