2017, Volume 13, Issue 1
Differentiation of the somatic composition of students physical education specialising in various sports
Marina Jagiełło1, Sergii Sidorovich Iermakov2, Mateusz Nowiński1
1Department of Sport, Faculty of Physical Education, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sports, Gdansk, Poland
2Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Russia
Author for correspondence: Sergii Sidorovich Iermakov; Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Russia; email: sportart[at]gmail.com
Background & Study Aim: A special interest for researchers is the issue of the physical composition of youth studying at different types of universities. The primary objective the study was the characteristics of body composition among students at Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport (AWFiS) pursuing different sports specialisations in comparison to people the same population (a reference group) not practising sports professionally.
Material & Methods: The study involved 25 final-year graduate students at AWFiS, pursuing the following sports disciplines: swimming (n = 5), bodybuilding (n = 7), football (n = 7) and volleyball (n = 6). The subjects’ age ranged 24 to 26 years (24.85 ±0.80), body weight 64 to 92 kg (79.28 ±7.14), body height 168 to 187 cm (178.92 ±5.39 cm), and the BMI 17.99 to 28.40 (24.37 ±2.24). The reference group were students of Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) based on the 1996 publication.
Anthropometric measurements (a total of 16 primary characteristics) were taken by the accepted principles, using standard tools. The assessment of internal proportions of the body composition was made using Perkal’s natural indicators method with Milicerowa’s modifications.
Results: From among the sixteen selected somatic features, students are significantly differentiated (in comparison to the reference group) by: 2 features in students pursuing the bodybuilding specialization, 5 features in students pursuing specialization in football and 7 features in students pursuing specialization in Students practising swimming are characterised (among others) by greater shoulder (4.26 Z) and elbow (3.47 Z) width and a greater circumference of the forearm (1.81 Z) in comparison to the control group. Swimmers are also shorter in body height than the control group and the other examined groups (−0.45 Z) and have lower adiposity – as measured by the sum of three fat skinfolds (−1.76Z). However, the noted differences are not statistically significant (p>0.05).
Conclusions: Internal proportions of body composition factors of students pursuing various sports specializations are distinguished by a very large contribution of the stoutness factor; additionally, in students practising swimming (an extremely low contribution of the adiposity factor), in bodybuilders (an extremely low contribution of the length factor, and in those practising soccer) and volleyball (low importance of the length factor and of the adiposity factor).
Key words: body composition, combat sports, Perkal’s method, Perkal’s natural indicators, skinfold