2018, Volume 14, Issue 1
Application of multidimensional simulation research tools in the diagnosis of youth aggressiveness – review of innovative methods
Jarosław Klimczak1, Małgorzata Klimczak1
1Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Ecology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland
Author for correspondence: Jarosław Klimczak; Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Ecology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background & Study Aim: The catharsis hypothesis proved to be counterproductive. Instead of reducing aggressiveness through, for example, repeatedly viewing scenes of violence and aggression, the effect is reversed. It is impossible to reverse this trend in the Internet age and the expansion of electronic media. From the early years of life, the child participates indirectly in the acts of violence and extreme aggression (despite protests, even animated films are saturated with such scenes). Moving these scenes to the real world and interpersonal relations manifests itself in the destruction of toys and other things, attacking peers or animals. The purpose of this review is the cognitive and applicative advantages of simulation research and direct observation in diagnosing youth aggressiveness as well as limitations in the use of these methods.
Material & Methods: Meta analysis of the methods of diagnosing aggressiveness recommended in the scientific literature.
Results: The paradigm of diagnosing aggressiveness is based – mainly on ethical considerations – on indirect observation. RM Kalina developed (1991), and then empirically verified (1997) the method of not only diagnosing aggressiveness based on indirect observation. A certain category of fun forms of martial arts (FFMA) allows this observation. FFMA used during specific prophylactic and/or therapeutic sessions or permanently during PE classes, health-related trainings, and professional sports training become the main means of reducing aggressiveness. In addition, a simple KS-4M projection test developed by Kalina et al. (1997) and accepted by respondents of all ages (4 images, simulation of activities on the micro, medium and macro scale) enables verification of test results with data from direct observation. Our long-term observations of young people (but also their educators) provide credible results that the mere undertaking of systematic sports training does not bring the expected effect of reducing of aggressiveness.
Conclusions: The questionnaires developed in the middle of the previous century are no longer useful. The main reason (in our opinion) is the need for the respondent to focus attention for a long time, but also the ability to read with understanding. Apart from professional therapeutic sessions, the universal possibilities of using FFMA (e.g. during warm-up, as a resounding of the monotonous repetition of simple motoric activities, as a separate part of PE, as spontaneous recreational fun) open the prospect of a radical improvement of interpersonal relations. However, it is necessary to have a verbal impact and engaging the media in this promotion of mainly mental health and social health. It is necessary to know this unique methodology.
Key words: catharsis hypothesis, fun forms of martial arts, mental health, social health, tutor