2014, Volume 10, Issue 1
Is the level of static strength and strength endurance a reflection of morphological differentiation among judo and ju-jitsu athletes?
Jadwiga Pietraszewska1, Anna Burdukiewicz1, Aleksandra Stachoń1, Kazimierz Witkowski2, Justyna Andrzejewska1, Tadeusz Stefaniak3, Krystyna Chromik1, Dariusz Harmaciński3, Jarosław Maśliński2
1Department of Physical Anthropology, University School of Physical Education, Wrocław, Poland
2Department of Martial Arts, University School of Physical Education, Wrocław, Poland
3Department of Individual Sports, University School of Physical Education, Wrocław, Poland
Background and Study Aim: Close resemblance of starting activity relates to judo and ju-jitsu athletes divided into several weight categories. Any changes in weight category or lowering body mass before competitions are a common practice. The purpose of this study was to answer the question: whether the level of static strength and strength endurance reflects morphological differentiation among judo and ju-jitsu athletes?
Material and Methods: The study involved 74 competitors training combat sports (judo n = 30; ju-jitsu n = 44) aged 19-26 years old. Training experience amounted from 5 to 12 years. Athletes represented weight categories from 66 to 100 kg. Several anthropometric measurements were performed. BMI index was used in the study. Somatic build was assessed according to the Sheldon’s method as modified by Heath and Carter. It was determined to which of the three following body build types: endomorph, ectomorph, mesomorph the participants belong. Tissue composition was determined with the use of BIA 101 impedance analyzer operating on Bodygram software. Handgrip strength, back muscles strength were measured and the following motor tests were performed: bent arm hang, standing broad jump, sit-up test.
Results: The first set I (n = 51) is a group of athletes with significantly lower level of handgrip strength and back muscle strength, and higher strength endurance (measured with the duration of hang on the bar and the number of sit-ups). Representatives of the second set II (n = 23) can be characterized by the type of motor performance based on higher static strength, lower endurance strength measured with the duration of hang on the bar and the number of the number of sit-ups. All participants are mesomorphs, however the distribution of mesomorphic and ectomorphic components significantly differs in both groups. In set I the somatotype can be depicted with the following formula: 2.1-5.8-2.1, whereas in set II: 2.2-7.1-1.3.
Conclusions: The results suggest the necessity for combat sports athletes (judo, ju-jitsu) to adjust suitable fight techniques during offensive and defensive actions according to their somatic predispositions.
Key words: anthropometric measurements, body composition, motor tests