2013, Volume 9, Issue 1
Empirical verification of the effect taekwondo on manners in elementary school students
Tae-Hee Lim1, David O'Sullivan2
1Department of Martial Arts, Yongin University, Yongin, South Korea
2Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea
Background and Study Aim: Taekwondo is a Korean martial art that emphasizes the importance of discipline for its practitioners. The purpose of this study was influence of the 6 month taekwondo training on the manners in elementary school.
Material and Methods: A total of seventy elementary students were selected and divided up randomly in to two groups, a Taekwondo group (N=30) and a control group (N=40). Survey measurements were taken three times pre-, after 3 months and post treatment (after 6 months) for 2×3 mixed design with repeated measure. For statistical analysis, two-way ANOVA, paired t-test, and an independent t-test with a significance level of 0.05 were applied.
Results: Statistical analysis revealed there was no mutual affect between taekwondo and control group on language manners, relationship manners, greeting manners, listening manners, table manners public manners in the testing time.
Conclusions: Taekwondo discipline for six months tended to have minimal effect on increasing manners. Future studies investigating similar behavioural changes should examine a longer period and should try to focus on the teaching style of class (leadership and communication styles).
Key words: martial arts, youth education, youth sport, manners, taekwondo