2016, Volume 12, Issue 1
Selected dimensions of the self – esteem and a kinematic effect of the intentional target at taekwon-do athletes
Dorota Ortenburger1, Jacek Wąsik1, Tomasz Góra1
1Pedagogiczny, Akademia im. Jana Długosza w Częstochowie, Częstochowa, Poland
Author for correspondence: Jacek Wąsik; Pedagogiczny, Akademia im. Jana Długosza w Częstochowie, Częstochowa, Poland; email: jwasik[at]konto.pl
Background and Study Aim: Failing to use simplifications in science of martial arts is connected with the necessity of interdisciplinary approach in conducting research, gathering and interpreting scientific data. The considerations of this paper included herein constitute the stage of the conducted research, leading towards a fuller understanding of a role of particular factors that influence on kick kinematics. The aim of this paper is the new knowledge concerning: the role of an intentionally indicated target in front kick kinematics, and the impact of selected aspects of the feeling of personal competence on kicking kinematics.
Material and Method: Six women training ITF (International Taekwon-do Federation) taekwondo were analysed (age: 19.8 ±3.8 years; body mass: 167.7 ±6.4 kg; height: 57.7 ±6.5 cm). For the purpose of this research motion analysis lab HML (Human Motion Lab) was used. Indicators registered structure of spatial-temporal motion marker, that was placed on the foot. Questionnaires used in health psychology and health promotion (Inventory Sense of Personal Competence Scale) and own questionnaire were applied.
Results: The registered speed during the execution of front kick was 11.06 ±1.49. The speed during the execution of kicking without a physical target (into the air) was 8.984 ±1.485 m/s for the left leg; 8.581 ±1.146 m/s for the right leg. While during the kick into the ball was 7.194 ±1.562 for the left leg and 7.506 ±0.988 m/s for the right leg. The research indicated that there is a statistically valid dependency (p<0.01) between the obtained maximum velocity of a front kick and the feeling of own competence (IA aspect). The relation between the persistence in continuing activities and obtained maximum velocity was not observed.
Conclusions: We can observe that during front kick performed by the examined taekwondo athletes the intentionally indicated physical target of a kick influenced on the movement kinematics. The performed research reveals that the maximum velocity of a front kick performed by woman, taekwondo athletes is influenced by a physical target. This may be associated with the concept of resource sharing, if action has a higher ceiling of difficulty, it is followed by extended reaction time and the mechanism of the speed-accuracy trade off. No lateralisation differences have been found in the group. It has been noticed that a bigger ability to initiate demanding activity strength positively affects the obtained velocity of the kicks. Such a dependency is not observed in the case of persistence in continuing activities.
Key words: front kick, kicks kinematics, martial arts, movement kinematic, performance, psychological factor, sense of personal competence, velocity