2017, Volume 13, Issue 1
The effectiveness of acquisition and retention of free throw skill by beginner basketball players through different methods: implicit learning of equipments modification (ILQM) and explicit learning (EL)
Mohsen Afrouzeh1, Mehdi Sohrabi1, Ali Reza Saberi Kakhki2, Sobhan Sobhani3
1Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhahd, Iran
2Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3Department of Physical Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Author for correspondence: Mehdi Sohrabi; Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhahd, Iran; email: M_afroz[at]yahoo.com
Background & Study Aim: In recent years, investigators have proposed and developed many new techniques for teaching motor skills. In such manner, implicit motor learning may be one of the most remarkable. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that the effect of implicit learning of equipments modification (ILEM) method on acquisition and retention would be better than explicit learning (EL) method.
Materials & Methods: Forty male beginner students (age 9.93 ±0.55 years) following the pre-test, were randomly placed into one in all two groups: EL – full size in mini basketball group (n = 20); ILQM – equipments modification group (n = 20). All participants were attending 10 training sessions (each season included 4 blocks and each blocks included 15 trials) during the period of the study. After the 10 season practice program, a post-test took place, followed by a retention test which was conducted one week later in which there was no free throw basketball practice.
Results: Results confirmed our hypothesis. The results revealed statistically significant differences in improvement between pre-test and post-test of each groups. Pairwise comparisons of the test effect indicated that performance during the pre-test was significantly poorer than pos-test and retention test (p<0.05). The independent-samples t-tests were conducted to follow up the significant between two groups. There were significant difference mean ratings scores of post-test (t(20 = 17.031, p<0.05 ) and retention test (t(20 = 14.702, p<0.05 ) between two groups.
Conclusions: The influence of a modified court to be a key variable in the promotion of skill acquisition and retention with novice players relative to the influence of a modified ball and court size.
Key words: AAPEHRD’s basketball test, motor skills, self-efficacy, shoot, technique