2017, Volume 13, Issue 1
Multidimensional tests as a fundamental diagnostic tools in the prophylactic and therapeutic agonology – methodological basis of personal safety (Part I: non-motoric simulation)
Roman Maciej Kalina1
1Department of Combat Sports, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sports, Gdansk, Poland
Author for correspondence: Roman Maciej Kalina; Department of Combat Sports, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sports, Gdansk, Poland; email: kom.kalina[at]op.pl
Background & Study Aim: The term “human development” has positive connotations and is always associated with the progress in some sake. For example, limb amputation objectively disregard as the progress (if the medicine is powerless in order to preserve the integrity of the body of the given individual). However, the fact that man after the amputation has successes in sport of people with disabilities, in professional activities and social, leads a happy family life is evidence of the continuation of multidimensional individual development (mental, motor, social, etc.). The aim of this study is scientific argumentation create multidimensional tests for the diagnosis of positive health and ability to survive in the universal sense.
Material & Methods: A critical analysis is based on the praxeological concept of “possibility of action” (dispositional-, situational-, complete feasibility) in opposition to the paradigm of analytical measuring positive health and physical fitness prevailing at views sport science experts and in the practice of physical education and sport for all (recreation).
Results: Multidimensional tests of three types: motor, psychomotor, simulation (simulation studies) have the greatest diagnostic and practical value (plenty of information while reducing the need to use measurement tools) among the indicators of positive health and ability to survive. There is also a category of difficult situations (e.g. extremely intense physical aggression, risk of drowning in the case of extreme physical exhaustion, collision with a vehicle, body injuries), which for ethical reasons and due to safety of studied person cannot be translated into motoric simulation. Adequate non-motoric simulation tests used in prophylactic and therapeutic agonology (innovative agonology) provide theoretical terms which allow us to identify three categories of phenomenon’s – aggressiveness, bravery, inaction. The KS‑4M projection test (pictorial) for example measures these three phenomena in a indirect manner. The same case is with the KK’98 questionnaire (written projection tests). The KK’017 questionnaire (written projection tests based on mixed assessments: “efficiency – ethical”) measures human actions in descriptively simulated situations (including extreme ones) according to the following criteria: “effective – ethical (fair)”; “ineffective – ethical (fair)”; “effective – unethical (shameful)”, “ineffective – unethical (shameful)”.
Conclusions: After the Cold War and the Iron Curtain moral dilemmas concern the boundaries of dissemination of scientific knowledge, which they can also use active and potential terrorists. Optimal argumentation provides prophylactic and therapeutic agonology referring to the mixed assessment (praxeological – ethical): the man has the right and the researches the obligation to provide the knowledge, which opens to everyone chance survival ability even in extreme emergency situations. The optimal method of defence against terrorists in verbal way is permanent monitoring in public space the question – “why you must kill?”.
Key words: motor competence, possibility of action, positive health, praxeology, survival ability, terrorism