2017, Volume 13, Issue 1
Are there sport-related differences in the patterns of gender among professional male athletes?
Helena Mroczkowska1, Jan Supiński2
1Institute of Sport – National Research Institute, Poland
2Department of Psychology, University School of Physical Education, Poland
Author for correspondence: Jan Supiński; Department of Psychology, University School of Physical Education, Poland; email: jan.supinski[at]awf.wroc.pl
Background & Study Aim: According to gender theory, psychological readiness to apply behaviours that are culturally ascribed to the pattern of ‘masculinity’ (competitiveness, independence, aggressiveness,) and ‘femininity’ (emotionalism, social sensitivity) in action is the criterion for its identification. The objective of the paper was the knowledge about the sports-related participation of gender in professional athletes.
Material & Methods: The investigated group of 200 professional sportsmen consisted of basketball players, bodybuilders, boxers, judokas, volleyball players, weight-lifters, windsurfers, wrestlers. The authors used ‘Inventory for evaluation of gender’ questionnaire technique (by A Kuczyńska) that determined the profile of gender in relation to the intensification of the pattern of ‘femininity’ WK (maximum 75 points) and ‘masculinity’ WM (maximum 75 points) measured independently from each other. The differences between groups were analysed using the Kruskal-Walis non-parametric test.
Results: We found significant differences between extreme mean values defining gender. Windsurfers, basketball and volleyball players achieved higher results than wrestlers and boxers on a scale of ‘masculinity’, ‘femininity’ and in the overall score. Results concerning other sports are in the middle of the above extreme values.
Conclusions: Windsurfing and team games set highest requirements before sportsmen about readiness and ability to apply ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ patterns of behaviour in action at the same time.
Key words: ‘femininity’, ‘masculinity’, profile of gender, sport psychology