2018, Volume 14, Issue 1
Susceptibility to fall injury in students of Physical Education practising handball
1Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Zielona Góra, Zielona Góra, Poland
Author for correspondence: Andrzej Mroczkowski; Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Zielona Góra, Zielona Góra, Poland; email: email@example.com
Background and Study Aim: Many developed countries are seeing an increase in their elderly and disabled populations who are at higher risk from fall injury. Injuries caused by falling are also an issue in all kinds of more intense physical activity, such as sports or work, at all ages.
This paper’s goal is the susceptibility to fall injury in students of Physical Education, who practising handball and students those not practising any specific sport discipline.
Material and Methods: The study involved 50 first-year students of physical education, three-year programme, at the University of Zielona Góra, aged 19-23 years, divided into two groups: A (n = 27) students who had not practiced any discipline in a sports club before; B (n = 23) students practising handball in a first-division club.
In order to identify wrong moving habits which may result in fall injury the ‘Susceptibility Test of Body Injury During Falls’ (STBIDF) was used. The test consisted of three motor tasks performed on a tatami mat. It assessed the way body parts, such as legs, hips, hands, head, were protected, since they are most at risk of injury from falling. Incorrect collisions – signalled by the quickest possible change of body position, from vertical to horizontal (lying on the back), were documented as errors of the ‘1st grade’ or the ‘2nd grade’, with no errors marked as ‘0 grade’. The total of points as a general indicator of ‘Susceptibility to Body Injury During Falls’ (SBIDF) was: low (0), average (1-3), high (4-8), very high (9-14).
Results: Statistical analysis of the findings was made using t-Student test for independent samples. The mean SBIDF result in Group A was 4.851 and in Group B 1.913, which is a statistically significant difference. Highly significant differences were also found between the two groups in each task with regard to head-movement mistakes and the total of points from all tasks at p<0.01. In the case of hands-movement mistake significant differences were found between the two groups at p<0.05 in task 1 and the total of points from all tasks.
Conclusions: By practising a sports discipline one can develop certain movement habits used when falling. Proper head-holding habits used while falling were acquired by handball players. The habit of holding the head properly was best seen in tasks 2 and 3, since the moves involved in them were the most complex. Throughout the whole of STBIDF the handball players made significantly fewer mistakes with regard to proper hands-movement habit than did the students not practising any discipline. The findings confirm the observations by other researchers that modern Physical Education in Polish schools does not involve the teaching of proper movement habits necessary for safe falling.
Key words: safe fall, non-apparatus test, innovative agonology, fall prevention programme