2019, Volume 15, Issue 1
The beginnings of extreme tourism in Poland – Seweryn Goszczyński “Travel Journal to the Tatra Mountains” (1832)
Leon Andrzej Krzemieniecki1, Bartłomiej Jan Barczyński2
1EKO-AGRO-FITNESS Prof. Romn M. Kalina, Piwniczna-Zdrój, Poland
2Archives of Budo, Warsaw, Poland
Author for correspondence: Bartłomiej Jan Barczyński; Archives of Budo, Warsaw, Poland; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background & Study Aim: Although nowadays survival ability it is also a scientific term (belonging to the empirical category), it dates back to the time when man also shaped his cognitive abilities. The inclinations and desires to explore unknown lands, places and areas, as well as curiosity towards exploring the world, are as old as humanity itself. Since ancient times, the early men, fighting predators and dangerous nature have been overcoming huge spaces (the nomadic period). Wandering, hunting, food search and winning skirmishes with enemies formed their existence and set the limits of the tame, friendly and close world. The goal of the presented scientific essay is to generalize the knowledge of extreme tourism in the Tatra Mountains, based of a single document, namely the diary of the Polish traveler, Seweryn Goszczyński.
Material & Methods: The scientific essay is based on an analysis the “Travel Diary to the Tatras” by Severyn Goszczyński (1801-1876) from 1832 is still an interesting example of the attitude to high mountain hiking and extreme tourism in Polish literature (first, only excerpts were printed and in 1853 the whole book appeared in print). The author of the diary was a Romantic poet, a democrat and a mountain lover and his diary was written in a form of a travel guide to the Tatra region (Podhale, Spisz, the Tatras).
Results: The authors of this scientific essay discuss the following issues: 1. The practical tourist guide (trail paving); 2. Struggle with nature – report on mountain hiking; 3. Mountain lovers, the price of risk and pioneer experiments; 4. Contemporary contexts and the integrity of information. 5. Extreme tourism and mountain expeditions in the message conveyed by Seweryn Goszczyński (science, practice and experience); 6. Contemporary interpretation of the work written many years ago; the beginning and end of the era).
Conclusions: In our opinion, the essay goes beyond the scope of the issues pertaining to martial arts bibliotherapy. Although the reference to “struggle with himself” (internal struggle) in this essay as well as in the literature dedicated to extreme forms of tourism is necessary, limiting the discussion to martial arts bibliotherapy would be unjustified from the point of view of methodology. However, the postulate to develop the new bibliotherapy category of interdisciplinary nature and, at the same time, oriented towards human functioning under difficult and extreme circumstances, such as innovative agonology bibliotherapy seems convincing.
Key words: bibliotherapy, innovative agonology, internal struggle, scientific essay, struggle with nature