2016, Volume 12, Issue 1
Fall as an extreme situation for people with mental disorders: a review
1Faculty of Physical Education, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland
Author for correspondence: Dariusz Mosler; Faculty of Physical Education, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland; email: dariusz.mosler[at]gmail.com
People with mental disorders are divided for categories based on etiology of their disabilities. Intellectual disability is mostly born with neurodevelopmental disorder, while other mental disorders are acquired as a result of mental illness. Sometimes this both types mixed as result of one of another.
The aim of this study is generalization of knowledge about similarities between fall risk factors and motor behavior of people with different type of mental disorders. Despite differences in classification and description in literature, individuals with those type of impairment have many common factors that can put them together in terms of fall risk analysis. From physiotherapist point of view, their cognitive and motor dysfunctions are mostly similar, which allows them to be put in the same high risk of fall group, despite separate analysis in literature. Alongside with common anti-psychotic drug treatment, which leaves extra-pyramidal side effects that affects motor functioning, people with mental disorders could be one of groups of the highest risk of injury or mortality caused by a fall, not to mention appearing of depressive symptoms and fear of falling.
Elderly with mental disorders could fall event more frequent that once a year. Necessity of hospitalization caused by a fall could take place up to 60% of population of people with intellectual disability. People with mental disorders under drug treatment are up to 70% more likely to fall.
Fall prevention programs could decrease fall risk and fall rates but effects of therapy are not everlasting and there is necessity to design good strategy for a life time for individuals with mental disorders to eliminate trauma from these extreme phenomena for them.
Key words: fall prevention, fall risk, mental disorder, mental illness, intellectual disability