2020, Volume 16, Issue 1
The battle with marlin and sharks in Ernest Hemingway's "The Old Man and the Sea" – a perspective on literary descriptions of extreme human activities in the prevention and therapy of innovative agonology
Leon Andrzej Krzemieniecki1, Bartłomiej Jan Barczyński2
1Polskie Towarzystwo Biblioterapeutyczne, Wrocław, Poland
24 Medicine Rek PLL | Archives of Budo, Warsaw, Poland
Author for correspondence: Bartłomiej Jan Barczyński; 4 Medicine Rek PLL | Archives of Budo, Warsaw, Poland; email: email@example.com
The world of literature is created by words; by evoking images they authenticate human activity. Through the magic of words, one can create every possible and impossible reality that is difficult to imagine. The purpose of this research essay is a crossover discussion of literature and praxeology aspects from the perspective of using innovative agonology in prevention and therapy. The old fisherman's struggle, first with the marlin, then with the sharks described by Nobel Prize winner Ernest Hemingway, is again captured in the shorthand descriptive language of praxeology. An old fisherman in extreme conditions constructs simple, practical, and useful tools to fight the sharks. It respects the rules of noble combat (as with the human subject). His actions are directed at the body of the opponent (similar to the specifics of combat sports) but in the final phase of the fight with the marlin and during the confrontation with the sharks, he uses methods and means appropriate for destructive combat. In a sense, martial arts bibliotherapy plays a similar role in influencing the intellectual (mental) sphere as fun forms of martial arts do in influencing the psychophysical sphere of personality, that is, the mental, somatic, and energetic (neurophysiological) spheres together.
Key words: bravery, courage, extreme form of physical activity, method of cunctation, moral power/strength, praxeology