2021, Volume 17, Issue 1
The body balance disturbation tolerance skills during increasing physical exertion as an important criterion for assessing personal safety
Bartłomiej Gąsienica Walczak1, Artur Kruszewski2, Marek Kruszewski2
1Health Institute, Podhale State College of Applied Sciences in Nowy Targ, Nowy Targ, Poland
2Department of Individual Sports, Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
Author for correspondence: Artur Kruszewski; Department of Individual Sports, Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background & Study Aim: Concern for personal safety fills the entire ontogeny of each individual human being. The phenomenon of the body balance disturbation tolerance skills (BBDTS) is important if only because we belong to the homo erectus species and an unintentional loss of vertical posture most often results in a fall or a collision with a vertical obstacle. The aim of our pilot study is to gain new knowledge about the capabilities of BBDTS by a professional hockey player during different phases of an intensive training session simulating a twenty-minute physical effort of the first period of a hockey game.
Material & Methods: Professional hockey player was studied: 22 years old; 175 cm; 73 kg; more than ten years of training experience. The reference system for the hockey player's performance is the performance of mountain bikers (n = 9) and horse riders (n = 7).
Has been applied Rotational Test’ (RT – quasi-apparatus version) measured the BBDTS. RT consists of six tasks (consecutive jumps with body rotation of 360° alternately to the right and to the left). Evaluation criteria: landing after the jump with body rotation on the designated line with both feet and maintaining balance means the lack of the error (the result is recorded as “0”), no contact of one foot with the line after landing is assessed as “1” (first degree error), “2” means the lack of contact with the line after landing or not maintaining this contact while correcting the posture (second degree error), “3” records leaning against the ground with a hand/hands or a fall (third degree error). The overall result (motoric aspect) is the sum of the six tasks and includes 0 to 18 stipulated points. Criteria of an individual level of BBDTS are as follows: very high (0-1), high (2-3), average (4-9), low (10-12), very low (13-15), insufficient (16-18). Test execution time – the optimal result is obtained after ca. twelve seconds. It is a complementary information (documented with an accuracy up to 0.01 second).
Results: Professional hockey player best tolerated body imbalance after performing a training session (RT score = 1 point). Mountain bikers also tolerated body imbalances better after specific cycling training (M = 7.11 ±0.35 points). In contrast, the average performance values of horse riders were higher after 60 minutes of riding training (M = 10.43 ±??points). The comparative performance of the hockey player and the mountain biker leader testifies to the different profiles of the phenomenon under study in the motor sense. Profile of a hockey player from first trial (before warm-up) to third trial: 11-, 7-, 5-, 3-, 1 point; similarly of a cyclist: 4-, 3-, 6-, 3-, 5 points. RT time-based profiles are very similar.
Conclusions: Two phenomena are a clear finding of this pilot study. First, the specific effort involved in sporting activities modifies the BBDTS in the course of its accrual and is determined, among other things, by the individual level of training. Secondly, the quality of these modifications measured multidimensionally is related to the state of those components of the neurophysiological system that are responsible for maintaining stable posture during human motor activity. Future research should answer the question to what extent appropriate training can serve to maintain optimal BBDTS throughout an individual's ontogeny. It is an open question to what extent the current RT formula may be applicable to the study of individuals with lower limb conditions.
Key words: BBDTS, effort safety, motor safety, nutritional security, survival