2021, Volume 17, Issue 1
The importance of research & development and innovation measurement for scientific institutions in a historical perspective
Bartłomiej Jan Barczyński1, Mirosław Rek2
1Archives of Budo | 4 Medicine Rek PLL, Warsaw, Poland
24 Medicine Rek PLL, Warsaw, Poland
Author for correspondence: Bartłomiej Jan Barczyński; Archives of Budo | 4 Medicine Rek PLL, Warsaw, Poland; email: email@example.com
The essay presents a historical overview of indicators for the science, technology, and innovation (STI), which serve as international tools for measuring, analysing, and comparing scientists, scientific institutions, and countries. The development of STI statistics is discussed as a derivative of changes occurring in the development factors of economically advanced countries and the structure of their economies. The importance of developing science, technology, and innovation statistics as tools for measurement, analysis, monitoring, and their influence on shaping scientific policies is emphasized. Changes in the interpretation and significance of STI indicators and their role in monitoring progress and effectiveness of scientific policies from the 1950s to the second decade of the 21st century are discussed. The significance of STI indicators as a fundamental measurement tool used by international and national organizations is highlighted. The need for employing various indicators and evaluation methods that complement each other to gain a more comprehensive understanding of STI phenomena is emphasized. The objective of the paper is to enhance knowledge regarding the importance of measuring research and development activities and innovation from the perspective of the economization of the broadly understood field of science.
Key words: R&D statistics, R&D expenditures, measurement of achievements, Frascati Manual, RDI, STI